Dragon Fruit Cultivation Method. Importance and nutritional value of dragon fruit

Dragon Fruit Cultivation Method
Dragon fruit is a famous fruit originally from America which has now gained wide popularity in our country as well. Different varieties of this fruit were first brought to Bangladesh in 2007 from Thailand, Florida, and Vietnam. Dragon fruit tree is a type of cactus tree. This tree has no leaves. Dragon fruit trees are typically 1.5 to 2.5 m tall.

At present, the new variety of dragon fruit developed by the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) is BARI Dragon Fruit-1, which is popular in Southeast Asia. The fruit is large, of a reddish-brown color, and of a reddish-brown color. The seeds are small and black. The weight of one fruit is from 150 grams to 600 grams.
Dragon fruit usually consists of three species:

1) Red dragon fruit or pitaya. Its color is red and white. The fruits of this species are the most abundant.

2) The Costa Rican Dragon Fruit. Both the beak and the tail are red.

3) Dragon fruit of yellow color. The color of the fruit is white and the color of the shell is yellow.
The varieties developed in Bangladesh are:

Bari Dragon Fruit-1, Bau Dragon Fruit-1 (White) Bau Dragon Fruit-2 (Red) Bau Dragon Fruit-3
The nutrients found in every 100 grams of edible dragon fruit are given below.

water - 80-90 g.

Sugar - 9-10 gm

Protein - 0.15-0.5 g

Fibre 0.33-0.90 gm

Food energy - 35-50 kcal.

fat - 0.10-0.6 g.

Calcium - 6-10 grams.

Iron - 0.3-0.7 m.village

Phosphorus - 16-35 g.

Carotene (vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin)

Vitamin B-3 - 0.2 - 0.4 gm

It is rich in fibre, Vitamin C, and minerals. It contains a lot of fiber, fats, carotene, phosphorus, ascorbic acid, protein, calcium, iron.
The Importance of Dragon Fruit:

1. It is rich in carotene which is good for the eyes.

2. It helps in digestion as it is high in fibre. It also reduces body fat.

3. The protein present in it helps in all the metabolic functions of the body.

4. Calcium strengthens the bones and teeth.

5. Vitamin B-3 reduces blood cholesterol and keeps the skin smooth.

6. Vitamin C strengthens the immune system and helps maintain healthy skin, teeth and hair.
Selection and preparation of dragon fruit land:

Well-drained high and medium-high fertile land should be selected and well-moistened with 2-3 cultivars.
Planting method and planting time of dragon fruit:

The cuttings of dragon fruit should be sown in square or square shape on plain land and contour method on hilly land. The best time for planting is from mid-April to mid-October.
The Origin of the Dragon Fruit:

Although dragon fruit is propagated by organism or seed, it is better to propagate by organism, that is, by cutting, in order to maintain the mother's quality. The success rate of cutting is almost 100% and takes place quickly. It takes 12-18 months for a tree produced from cuttings to bear fruit. Usually, the older and hardier branches are cut 1 to 1.5 feet and the seedlings can be easily grown by planting the early cuttings in sandy loamy soil in light shade. Then after 20 to 30 days, the roots will come out from the root of the cutting. Then it will be suitable for planting in the field. However, in the appropriate environment and according to the need, the cuttings can be planted directly on the original land.
Dragon Fruit Pruning and Training:

Dragon fruit grows very quickly and forms thick branches. A 1-year-old tree can produce up to 30 branches, and a 4-year-old dragon fruit tree can produce up to 130 branches. However, branch production depends on proper training and management. Studies have shown that in the context of Bangladesh, a tree bears fruit after 12 to 18 months. In 40 to 50 main branches of fruit collection 1 or 2 secondary branches are approved each. However, tertiary and quaternary branches are not allowed in this case. It is best to divide the training and pruning activities into days. Any fungicide must be applied after training and prepping. It can lead to various diseases.
Planting dragon fruit holes:

Make a hole of size 1.5 m x 1.5 m x 1m and keep it open in the sun. After 20-25 days of making holes, fill the holes by mixing 25-30 kg of rotten cow dung, 250 g of TSP, 250 g of MOP, 150 g of gypsum, and 50 g of zinc sulfate fertilizer with the soil of the hole. Water should be provided when required. After 10-15 days of filling the holes, 4 plants should be planted straight in the middle at a distance of 50 cm from each hole. Urea should be applied at the rate of 100 grams per hole for 3 months from 1 month to 1 year after sowing.
Care of the dragon fruit:

Regular irrigation should be provided by removing weeds and if necessary fencing should be arranged around. As the tree is planted and 1.5 to 2.5 m tall, a 4m long cement pole should be placed between the 4 saplings for support. If the plant is big then it should be tied with the rope of straw or coconut so that when the stem comes out then the plant can easily grow by holding the palm. At the head of each pole, an old tire of a motorcycle should be fastened with a thick wire. Then the head and other ends of the tree should be placed inside the tire and hung outward. Because that's the way the fruits grow.
As the dragon fruit tree ages, it must be fertilizer in the following ways:

(1) The age of the plant is 1-3 years Urea fertilizer 300 gm TSP fertilizer 250 gm MOP fertilizer 250 gm

(2) The age of the plant is 6-6 years Urea fertilizer should be given 350 g TSP fertilizer 300 g MOP fertilizer 300 g

(3) Age of the plant 6-9 years Urea fertilizer 400 gm TSP fertilizer 350 gm MOP fertilizer 350 gm

(4) If the age of the plant is more than 10 years then urea fertilizer should be given 500 gm TSP fertilizer 500 gm MOP fertilizer 500 gm
Irrigation Management of Dragon Fruit:

Dragon fruit does not tolerate drought and waterlogging. Therefore irrigation should be done after 10-15 days in dry weather. Apart from this, the fruiting plants should be irrigated 3 times i.e. once in the flowering stage, once in the fruiting stage, and again after 15 days.
Dragon Fruit Disease and Pest Management:

As a result, the disease does not manifest itself. Occasionally, the plant is affected by weeds, pests and diseases.
Fruit of the Dragon:

If too much water gets accumulated in the roots, the root gets rotten. In this disease, all the roots of the plant rot inside the soil. When the tree is pulled upwards, only the stem comes up without the root. But to get rid of it, it is better to cultivate this fruit on higher ground. The disease is caused by Fusarium sp.
Diseases of the trunk and roots of dragon fruit:

It can be caused by fungal or bacterial infection. In this disease, the stem of the plant first takes a yellow color and then black color, and later the area begins to wilt and the amount of wilt increases. Any fungicide (Bevistin, Ridomil, Thiovit, etc.) can be easily suppressed by applying 2 grams per liter of water.
Dragon Fruit Spiders:

Spiders, which are harmful to dragon fruit, are rarely seen, but aphids and mealy bugs are occasionally seen. The young and adult aphids suck the sap from the young branches and leaves of the plant, causing the young branches and tips of the affected plant to turn pale and the plant to become weak. This insect excretes sticky juice-like feces on the tip and as a result, produces a disease of black fungus named shut mold. This prevents the plants from producing food. It reduces flowering and fruiting. The disease can be easily controlled by spraying Sumethion / Decis / Malathion insecticides by mixing 25 ml or 5 cups in every 10 liters of water.
Dragon Fruit Collection and Production:

Fruits can be harvested between 1 and 1.5 years of age after planting from dragon fruit cuttings. Fruits should be collected when they are completely red. The fruit is ready to eat within 35-40 days of flowering. Fruits can be collected in 5-6 stages per year. The first is June-October, the second is December-January.

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